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ACM Transactions on Computing Education (TOCE), Volume 10 Issue 4, November 2010

Preface to Special Issue on Initial Learning Environments
Sally Fincher, Ian Utting
Article No.: 12
DOI: 10.1145/1868358.1868359

Machines for Thinking
Sally Fincher, Ian Utting
Article No.: 13
DOI: 10.1145/1868358.1868360

In this article we set a context for three Initial Learning Environments Alice, Greenfoot, and Scratch. We consider historical antecedents, technical comparators and design approaches.

The Greenfoot Programming Environment
Michael Kölling
Article No.: 14
DOI: 10.1145/1868358.1868361

Greenfoot is an educational integrated development environment aimed at learning and teaching programming. It is aimed at a target audience of students from about 14 years old upwards, and is also suitable for college- and university-level...

The Design of Alice
Stephen Cooper
Article No.: 15
DOI: 10.1145/1868358.1868362

This article explores the major design characteristics (both pedagogic as well as technical) that helped to shape Alice 2. It identifies several strengths of Alice as well as several weaknesses. An example problem is solved in Alice, covering many...

The Scratch Programming Language and Environment
John Maloney, Mitchel Resnick, Natalie Rusk, Brian Silverman, Evelyn Eastmond
Article No.: 16
DOI: 10.1145/1868358.1868363

Scratch is a visual programming environment that allows users (primarily ages 8 to 16) to learn computer programming while working on personally meaningful projects such as animated stories and games. A key design goal of Scratch is to support...

Alice, Greenfoot, and Scratch -- A Discussion
Ian Utting, Stephen Cooper, Michael Kölling, John Maloney, Mitchel Resnick
Article No.: 17
DOI: 10.1145/1868358.1868364

This article distills a discussion about the goals, mechanisms, and effects of three environments which aim to support the acquisition and development of computing concepts (problem solving and programming) in pre-University and non-technical...